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Edward Hopper

Edward Hopper


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Edward Hopper, un pintor realista estadounidense cuyas obras altamente individualistas son un punto de referencia del realismo estadounidense, personifica una conciencia artística que describe inquietantemente la vida estadounidense contemporánea caracterizada por el aislamiento, la melancolía y la soledad.Nacimiento e infanciaEdward nació el 22 de julio de 1882 en la pequeña ciudad de Nyack, Nueva York, en el río Hudson. Hopper sabía que quería ser artista ya en 1899, el año de su cumpleaños número 17. Asistió por primera vez a una escuela de arte comercial e ilustración en la ciudad de Nueva York, Nueva York, en 1899. El instructor principal fue William Merritt Chase ( 1849-1916), pintor que imitó el estilo de John Singer Sargent. Se instó a él y a sus compañeros de estudios a desarrollar un estilo realista, representando la cultura urbana.Carrera tempranaComo hacen muchos artistas jóvenes, Hopper quería estudiar en Francia. En octubre de 1906, su deseo se cumplió cuando, con la ayuda de sus padres, partió hacia el continente. Sin embargo, después de esos viajes, nunca más residió en Europa. Hopper se sintió muy conmovido por las obras de Diego Velázquez, Francisco de Goya, Honore Daumier y Edouard Manet. Sus primeras pinturas exhibieron algunas de las características básicas del realismo que llevaría a lo largo de su carrera, un estilo equilibrado y combinativo basado en formas analíticas grandes y simples; amplias áreas de color y el uso de fundamentos arquitectónicos en sus escenas. Durante muchos años, los recuerdos de los días en el extranjero dominaron el estilo de pintura de Hopper. Después de ese intento, Hopper renovó sus esfuerzos utilizando temas estadounidenses de cosecha propia, por los que más se le recuerda. Edward Hopper hizo su primera venta en 1913, en una exposición en Nueva York. Durante varios años después de cumplir 37 años, Hopper se ganó la vida como ilustrador comercial.MatrimonioEn 1923, Josephine Nivison, a quien había conocido cuando eran estudiantes de Chase y Henri, entró en su vida una vez más. El mismo año en que se casaron, los vientos de la fortuna cambiaron para Hopper.Carrera posteriorEl año excepcional de Edward Hopper fue 1924. La carrera de Hopper despegó y no se vería afectada notablemente por la Gran Depresión de los años treinta. Edward Hopper había dejado su huella en el mundo.El Museo de Arte Moderno (MOMA) celebró una exposición en 1929, Pinturas de diecinueve estadounidenses vivos, que incluía el trabajo de Hopper. Aunque su trabajo se encuentra fuera de la corriente principal de la abstracción de mediados del siglo XX, su estilo esquemático simplificado fue una de las influencias en el renacimiento representativo posterior y en el arte pop.Últimos diasHopper trabajó hasta su vejez, dividiendo su tiempo entre la ciudad de Nueva York y Truro, Massachusetts. La fama de Edward Hopper no perduró cuando su musa se secó. Su esposa, que murió 10 meses después, legó su trabajo al Museo Whitney de Arte Americano. En 2004, el mundo recordó y honró a Hopper cuando muchas de sus pinturas recorrieron Europa, deteniéndose en el Museo Ludwig, Colonia, Alemania, y en el Tate Modern Art Gallery de Londres. La exposición Hopper se convirtió en la segunda más popular en la historia de esta última galería, con más de 400.000 visitantes en los tres meses que estuvo abierta.


Véase también Andrew Wyeth y Jackson Pollock.


Edward Hopper y el aroma de la soledad

Recuerdo haber visto la pieza de Edward Hopper & # 8217 por primera vez. Por supuesto que fue su famoso Nighthawks & # 8211 ya conoces esta pintura & # 8211 es & # 8217s a altas horas de la noche, la gente está sentada en un restaurante barato, una pareja está esperando su pedido. Si alguna vez has sido un & # 8220 nighthawk & # 8221 tú mismo conoces esa sensación de fatiga, olor a cigarrillo y alcohol digerido. Cansancio e ilusiones perdidas.

Edward Hopper, Nighthawks, 1942, Instituto de Arte de Chicago

Hopper era un maestro de la soledad. Solo que pintó la melancolía de tal manera, que cuando miras a estas personas puedes sentir sus secretos. Porque a veces tus secretos son bastante similares a los de ellos.

En Aparato mecánico 1927, una mujer sentada sola tomando una taza de café. Es tarde y hace frío afuera. La habitación parece grande, bien iluminada y vacía. La mujer parece cohibida y un poco asustada, no acostumbrada a estar sola en un lugar público. Algo parece haber salido mal.

Edward Hopper, Automat, 1927, Des Moines Art Center

En Una mujer en el sol una mujer está de pie, un rayo de luz rasante de una ventana cercana con un cigarrillo en la mano. Se olvidó de encenderlo. Parece haberse olvidado de sí misma. Incluso se olvidó de encender un cigarrillo. Separada del mundo exterior, está esperando que sucedan las cosas.

Edward Hopper, Una mujer al sol, 1961, Museo de Arte Whitney

No puedo pensar en ningún otro artista que fuera tan perfecto para captar la soledad, la resignación y la desesperación de la gente moderna.


El Cristo incomparable

Hace más de 1900 años nació un hombre contrario a las leyes de la naturaleza. Este hombre vivió en la pobreza y fue criado en la oscuridad. No viajó mucho. Sólo una vez cruzó la frontera del país en el que vivía, durante su niñez, cuando estaba exiliado en Egipto.

No poseía riqueza ni influencia, sus parientes pasaban desapercibidos y no tenían ni formación ni educación formal.

En la infancia, asustó a un rey en la infancia, desconcertó a los médicos en la edad adulta, gobernó el curso de la naturaleza, caminó sobre las olas como si fueran aceras, y calmó el mar para que se durmiera.

Sanó a las multitudes sin medicinas y no cobró nada por sus servicios.

Él nunca escribió un libro y, sin embargo, todas las bibliotecas del mundo no podían contener los libros que se han escrito sobre Él.

Nunca escribió una canción y, sin embargo, ha proporcionado el tema para más canciones que todos los escritores de canciones juntos.

Nunca fundó una universidad, pero todas las escuelas juntas no pueden presumir de tener tantos estudiantes.

Él nunca ordenó un ejército, ni reclutó a un soldado, ni disparó un arma y, sin embargo, ningún líder tuvo más voluntarios que, bajo sus órdenes, hicieron que más rebeldes apilaran las armas y se rindieran sin que se disparara un solo tiro.

Nunca practicó la psiquiatría y, sin embargo, ha sanado a más corazones rotos que todos los médicos de lejos y de cerca.

Una vez por semana las ruedas del comercio dejan de girar y multitudes se dirigen a las asambleas de adoración para rendirle homenaje y respeto.

Los nombres de los orgullosos estadistas de Grecia y Roma han ido y venido. Los nombres de los científicos, filósofos y teólogos del pasado han ido y venido, pero el nombre de este Hombre abunda cada vez más.

Aunque el tiempo se ha extendido por más de 1900 años entre la gente de su generación y la escena de Su crucifixión, sin embargo, Él vive. Herodes no pudo destruirlo y la tumba no pudo retenerlo.

Él se destaca sobre el pináculo más alto de la gloria celestial, proclamado por Dios, reconocido por los ángeles, adorado por los santos y temido por los demonios como el Cristo personal resucitado, nuestro Señor y Salvador.

En esta temporada, el Cristo Incomparable todavía está parado a la puerta de muchos corazones, buscando ser admitido. Sus palabras dicen: “He aquí, yo estoy a la puerta y llamo si alguno oye mi voz y abre la puerta, entraré a él y cenaré con él y él conmigo” (Apocalipsis 3:20).

Además, "no hay otro nombre debajo del cielo dado a los hombres, en el cual podamos ser salvos".

El Señor Jesucristo es el mayor regalo que jamás se haya dado al mundo. Puede ser tuyo. ¿ES ÉL?

“Cree en el Señor Jesucristo, y serás salvo” (Hechos 16:31).


Carrera profesional

Su carrera temprana estuvo marcada por la lucha. Alquiló un estudio y se embarcó en el viaje. El medio que utilizó por primera vez fue la pintura al óleo. Pintó su primera pintura al óleo en 1895 de un bote de remos en Rocky Cove.

Después de verse obligado a usar su habilidad para ganar dinero, asumió el trabajo de ilustrador. Sin embargo, esto no era lo que deseaba y, como escape, emprendió un viaje a Europa. El viaje, centrado en París, fue un hito importante en la vida de Hopper. Con Picasso ya pintando obras maestras, el escenario estaba listo para el arte moderno. Aunque Hopper no tuvo un encuentro con Picasso, aprendió sobre el arte moderno y se inclinó por el tipo de arte impresionista. Por lo tanto, tomó la paleta más clara, particularmente inspirada en Monet y Van Gogh, renunciando a las ilustraciones oscuras.

Hopper regresó de la expedición europea en 1910. Desafortunadamente, tuvo que luchar por el reconocimiento. Sus creaciones recibieron poca apreciación. El poco reconocimiento que recibió fue por la pintura al óleo y el grabado. Logró su primer gran avance a la edad de 31 años cuando vendió su pintura al óleo. Había esperado que esto lo llevara a un mayor éxito, pero aún le quedaba mucho por hacer.

En 1912, viajó a Gloucester, Massachusetts, e hizo su primera pintura al aire libre con pintura al óleo. Esto fue llamado el Squam Light . Esto precedió a sus muchas pinturas de faros por venir.

En 1913, ganó 250 dólares vendiendo su primer autorretrato llamado Navegación . Continuó trabajando durante este período y ocasionalmente fue invitado a realizar exposiciones en lugares pequeños. A lo largo de este período, siguió creando carteles para cine y teatro, por lo que sintió un profundo apego. Creó carteles de guerra y ganó reconocimiento por ellos.

A regañadientes, recurrió a las ilustraciones y trabajó como autónomo para ganarse la vida. Hopper luchó por definir su propio estilo, a menudo cambiando de una forma de arte a otra. Volvió al grabado, en el que había recibido grandes elogios. A lo largo de la década de 1920, trabajó en este medio y la mayoría de sus obras se encuentran en este estilo de arte. Éstos incluyen Noche en el tren El , Viento de la tarde y Catboat .

Durante este período, también pintó algunas de sus famosas pinturas y ganó algunos elogios. Fue invitado a realizar una exposición individual para mostrar sus obras. Estas exposiciones eran más frecuentes y descubrió que lo apreciaban mejor.

El Museo de Arte Moderno adquirió una de sus famosas pinturas, Casa junto al ferrocarril, en 1925. Sus famosos cuadros fueron obra de impresiones. El juego de luces y colores y los bordes bien definidos fueron una característica destacada. ¡Finalmente había comenzado a recibir los elogios que se merecía!


Edward Hopper

Nacido en Nyack, Nueva York, Edward Hopper (1882-1967) es reconocido como uno de los más grandes artistas estadounidenses del siglo XX. Sus representaciones sobrias y finamente calculadas de escenas urbanas y rurales reflejaban su visión personal de la vida estadounidense moderna.

Animado a estudiar ilustración por sus padres, Hopper tomó cursos en la Escuela de Ilustración por Correspondencia y en la Escuela de Arte de Nueva York. Ilustrador / pintores destacados Arthur Ignatius Keller, Frank Vincent DuMond, Kenneth Hayes Miller, y Robert Henri estaban entre sus maestros. John Sloan, quien trabajó regularmente como artista comercial antes de 1916, también fue una de sus primeras influencias.

En 1906, Hopper consiguió un trabajo a tiempo parcial en una agencia de publicidad y pasó a crear imágenes para revistas tan populares como Revista Scribner & rsquos, Revista Everbody & # 39s, y Caballero del campoy para revistas especializadas como Gestión hotelera, El dial morse, y Mensajero de Wells Fargo. Persona muy reservada, no dejó reflexiones escritas sobre sus dos décadas de carrera como ilustrador, aunque creía que el desarrollo maduro de un artista estaba ligado al trabajo de sus años de formación.

Entre 1906 y 1910, el artista realizó tres viajes a París. A diferencia de otros artistas estadounidenses de la época, Hopper ignoró las innovaciones de los artistas más vanguardistas de la ciudad y los rsquos, favoreciendo a una generación anterior de pintores europeos, incluidos Rembrandt, Degas y los impresionistas, cuyo trabajo fue elogiado por su antiguo maestro Robert Henri.

Atraído por el arte realista, Hopper comenzó a producir aguafuertes y pintar escenas urbanas y arquitectónicas en una paleta oscura. Su primera exposición individual se llevó a cabo en enero de 1920 en el Whitney Studio Club, fundado cinco años antes por Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney. En julio de 1924, Hopper se casó con Josephine Verstille Nivison, una pintora que había conocido en la escuela de arte.

Hopper fue muy productivo durante las siguientes cuatro décadas, produciendo obras tan importantes como Aparato mecánico (1927), Chop Suey (1929), Película de Nueva York (1939), Show de chicas (1941), Nighthawks (1942), Recibidor del Hotel (1943), Mañana en una ciudad (1944) y Hotel por ferrocarril (1952). La influencia de su estilo distintivo se siente hasta el día de hoy, que se extiende más allá de la pintura a la fotografía, el cine y la cultura popular.

Compre The Unknown Hopper: Edward Hopper como catálogo de exposiciones de Illustrator aquí.

Ilustraciones de Edward Hopper.

Recursos adicionales

Bibliografía

Goodrich, Lloyd. Edward Hopper. Nueva York: Harry N. Abrams, 1970.

Kranzfelder, Ivo. Edward Hopper, 1882-1967: Visión de la realidad. Nueva York: Taschen, 1988.

Levin, Gail. Edward Hopper: una biografía íntima. Nueva York: Knopf, 1995.

Schmied, Wieland. Edward Hopper: Retratos de América. Nueva York: Prestel, 1995.

Souter, Gerry. Edward Hopper: luz y oscuridad. Nueva York: Parkstone Press International, 2007.

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      Hopper: el realista supremo estadounidense del siglo XX

      La pintura no le resultó fácil a Edward Hopper. Cada lienzo representaba una gestación larga y taciturna en pensamientos solitarios. No hubo pinceladas amplias de una mano febril, ni eurekas electrizantes. Consideró, descartó y redujo ideas durante meses antes de exprimir incluso una gota de pintura en su paleta. A principios de la década de 1960, el artista Raphael Soyer visitó a Hopper y su esposa, Josephine, en su casa de verano en un acantilado sobre el mar en Cape Cod. Soyer encontró a Hopper sentada al frente mirando las colinas y Jo, como todos la llamaban, atrás, mirando en la dirección opuesta. "Eso es lo que hacemos", le dijo a Soyer. "Él se sienta en su lugar y mira las colinas todo el día, y yo miro el océano, y cuando nos encontramos hay controversia, controversia, controversia". Expresada con el destello característico de Jo (una artista y una vez aspirante a actriz, supo cómo pronunciar una línea), la viñeta resume tanto el proceso creativo de Hopper como la relación conflictiva pero duradera de la pareja. De manera similar, el amigo íntimo de Hopper, el pintor y crítico estadounidense Guy P & # 232ne du Bois, escribió una vez que Hopper "me dijo que le había llevado años convertirse en la pintura de una nube en el cielo".

      Contenido relacionado

      "El pintor", observaba a menudo Edward Hopper, "pinta para revelarse a través de lo que ve en su tema". Chop Suey data de 1929. (Colección de Barney A. Ebsworth / Cortesía, Museo de Bellas Artes, Boston) /> Hopper, de unos 40 años, en un autorretrato de 1925-30. (Whitney Museum of American Art, Josephine N. Hopper Bequest / Fotografía de Robert E. Mates / Cortesía, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Las acuarelas que Hopper creó en Massachusetts en la década de 1920 le llevaron a su primer reconocimiento profesional (House and Harbor, 1924). (Colección privada / Cortesía, Museo de Bellas Artes, Boston) En New York Corner, 1913, Hopper introdujo un motivo de edificios de ladrillo rojo y un patrón de ventanas abiertas y cerradas. (Colección privada, cortesía de Fraenkel Gallery y Martha Parrish & amp James Reinish, Inc. / cortesía, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Hopper usó su motivo de ventana rítmica de ladrillo rojo In Early Sunday Morning (1930) para crear una sensación de familiaridad y un silencio inquietante. (Museo Whitney de Arte Americano / Fotografía de Steven Sloman / Cortesía, Museo de Bellas Artes, Boston) La intrigante Night Windows (1928) es a la vez voyerista y misteriosa; uno solo puede adivinar lo que la mujer está tramando. (Museo de Arte Moderno, NY. Obsequio de John Hay Whitney / SCALA / Art Resource / Cortesía, Museo de Bellas Artes, Boston) Hopper "ofrece fragmentos de una vida insoluble, momentos en una narrativa que no puede tener cierre", escribió el crítico de arte Robert Hughes. Hopper pintó Cape Cod Morning, que dijo que se acercaba más a lo que sentía que otras obras, en 1950 (Smithsonian American Art Museum / Art Resource). Nighthawks (1942) (The Art Institute of Chicago / Friends of American Art Collection / Cortesía, Museo de Bellas Artes, Boston) Automat (1927) (Des Moines Art Center, Iowa / Michael Tropea, Chicago / Cortesía, Museo de Bellas Artes, Boston) The Mansard Roof (1923) (Museo de Brooklyn, Nueva York, Fondo de la colección del museo / Cortesía, Museo de Bellas Artes, Boston) Casa del Capitán Upton (1927) (Colección de Steve Martin / Cortesía, Museo de Bellas Artes, Boston) Hills, South Truro (1930) (Museo de Arte de Cleveland, Colección Hinman B. Hurlbut / Cortesía, Museo de Bellas Artes, Boston) Night Shadows (1921) (Museo de Bellas Artes, Boston / Regalo de William Emerson)

      A pesar de su cautelosa deliberación, Hopper creó más de 800 pinturas, acuarelas y grabados conocidos, así como numerosos dibujos e ilustraciones. Los mejores de ellos son extrañas destilaciones de las ciudades de Nueva Inglaterra y la arquitectura de la ciudad de Nueva York, con la hora y el lugar exactos detenidos. Sus interpretaciones crudas pero íntimas de la vida estadounidense, hundida en la sombra o ardiendo al sol, son dramas mínimos impregnados de máxima potencia. Hopper tenía una capacidad notable para invertir la escena más común, ya sea en una gasolinera al borde de la carretera, un restaurante anodino o una habitación de hotel sombría, con un misterio intenso, creando narrativas que ningún espectador puede desentrañar nunca. Sus figuras congeladas y aisladas a menudo parecen dibujadas y posadas con torpeza, pero evitó hacerlas parecer demasiado elegantes o llamativas, lo que sintió que sería falso para el estado de ánimo que buscaba establecer. La fidelidad de Hopper a su propia visión, que se demoró en las imperfecciones del ser humano y sus preocupaciones, hizo de su trabajo un sinónimo de honestidad y profundidad emocional. El crítico Clement Greenberg, el principal exponente del expresionismo abstracto, vio la paradoja. Hopper, escribió en 1946, "no es un pintor en el pleno sentido de que sus medios son de segunda mano, gastados e impersonales". Sin embargo, Greenberg fue lo suficientemente perspicaz para agregar: "Hopper simplemente resulta ser un mal pintor. Pero si fuera un mejor pintor, lo más probable es que no sea un artista tan superior".

      Hopper estaba tan pensativo como la gente que pintaba en el lienzo. De hecho, la personalidad pública del artista realzó la cualidad enigmática de las pinturas. Alto y de constitución sólida con una enorme cabeza calva, recordaba a los observadores un trozo de granito y era casi tan comunicativo. No ayudó a los periodistas que buscaban detalles o anécdotas. "Toda la respuesta está en el lienzo", respondía obstinadamente. Pero también dijo: "El hombre es el trabajo. Algo no sale de la nada". El historiador de arte Lloyd Goodrich, que defendió a Hopper en la década de 1920, pensó que el artista y su obra se fusionaban. "Hopper no tuvo una pequeña charla", escribió Goodrich. "Era famoso por sus silencios monumentales, pero al igual que los espacios en sus cuadros, no estaban vacíos. Cuando hablaba, sus palabras eran producto de una larga meditación. Sobre las cosas que le interesaban, especialmente el arte. Tenía cosas perceptivas que digamos, expresado concisamente pero con peso y exactitud, y pronunciado en un tono lento, reticente, monótono ".

      En cuanto a la controversia, ya queda poco. La estrella de Hopper ha brillado durante mucho tiempo. Podría decirse que es el realista estadounidense supremo del siglo XX, que resume aspectos de nuestra experiencia de manera tan auténtica que apenas podemos ver una casa en ruinas cerca de una carretera desierta o una sombra deslizándose a través de una fachada de piedra rojiza excepto a través de sus ojos. Dado el estatus icónico de Hopper, es sorprendente saber que no se ha visto un estudio completo de su trabajo en los museos estadounidenses fuera de la ciudad de Nueva York en más de 25 años. Esta sequía ha sido remediada por "Edward Hopper", una retrospectiva actualmente en el Museo de Bellas Artes de Boston hasta el 19 de agosto y que continúa hasta la Galería Nacional de Arte de Washington DC (del 16 de septiembre de 2007 al 21 de enero de 2008). ) y el Art Institute of Chicago (del 16 de febrero al 11 de mayo de 2008). Consta de más de 100 pinturas, acuarelas y grabados, la mayoría de ellos que datan aproximadamente de 1925 a 1950, el período del mayor logro del artista, la muestra destaca las composiciones más convincentes de Hopper.

      "El énfasis está en el conocimiento, un término anticuado, pero seleccionamos rigurosamente", dice Carol Troyen, curadora de pintura estadounidense en el Museo de Bellas Artes de Boston y una de las organizadoras & # 8212 junto con Judith Barter del Art Institute y Franklin Kelly de la Galería Nacional & # 8212 de la exposición. "Hopper es reconocido como un brillante creador de imágenes, pero también queríamos presentarlo como un artista dedicado al oficio de la pintura cuyo trabajo debe verse en persona. Su arte es mucho más sutil de lo que revela cualquier reproducción".

      Edward Hopper nació el 22 de julio de 1882 en Nyack, Nueva York, a 40 kilómetros al norte de la ciudad de Nueva York, en una familia de ascendencia inglesa, holandesa, francesa y galesa. Su abuelo materno construyó la casa & # 8212 preservada hoy como un centro de arte comunitario y emblemático & # 8212 donde él y su hermana, Marion, que era dos años mayor, crecieron. El padre de Hopper, Garrett Henry Hopper, era un comerciante de productos secos. Su madre, Elizabeth Griffiths Smith Hopper, disfrutaba dibujando, y ambos padres alentaron las inclinaciones artísticas de su hijo y conservaron sus primeros bocetos de sí mismo, su familia y el campo local. Edward, que medía más de un metro ochenta a los 12 años, se burlaba de sus compañeros de clase. Su diferencia probablemente reforzó sus búsquedas solitarias: gravitó hacia el río, el bosquejo, la navegación y la pintura. Incluso cuando era niño, recordó Hopper, notó "que la luz en la parte superior de una casa era diferente a la de la parte inferior. Hay una especie de euforia por la luz del sol en la parte superior de una casa".

      Aunque los padres de Hopper reconocieron los dones de su hijo y le permitieron estudiar arte, fueron lo suficientemente prudentes como para exigirle que se especializara en ilustración como una forma de ganarse la vida. Después de graduarse de la escuela secundaria en 1899, Hopper se matriculó en una escuela de arte comercial en la ciudad de Nueva York y permaneció allí aproximadamente un año, después de lo cual se trasladó a la Escuela de Arte de Nueva York, fundada en 1896 por el impresionista estadounidense William Merritt Chase. Hopper continuó estudiando ilustración, pero también aprendió a pintar de los maestros más influyentes de la época, incluidos Chase, Robert Henri y Kenneth Hayes Miller. Tanto Chase como Henri habían sido influenciados por Frans Hals, Vel & # 225zquez y el impresionismo francés, particularmente como lo ejemplifica & # 201douard Manet. Henri animó a sus estudiantes a emanciparse de las fórmulas académicas cansadas, adoptando un realismo que se sumergió en los aspectos más sórdidos de las ciudades estadounidenses por su tema. Como artista exitoso que mira hacia atrás, Hopper tenía reservas sobre Henri como pintor, pero siempre reconoció que su maestro era un firme defensor de una forma ilustrada de ver. Inspirado por la fuerza motivadora de Henri, el joven Hopper permaneció en la escuela durante seis años, dibujando de la vida y pintando retratos y escenas de género. Para mantenerse a sí mismo, enseñó arte allí y también trabajó como artista comercial. Hopper y su amigo Rockwell Kent estaban en la clase de Miller, y algunos de sus primeros debates giraron en torno a problemas pictóricos que seguían siendo de gran fascinación para Hopper. "Siempre me ha intrigado una habitación vacía", recuerda. "Cuando estábamos en la escuela. [Debatimos] cómo se veía una habitación cuando no había nadie que la viera, ni siquiera nadie mirando hacia adentro". En una habitación vacía, la ausencia podría sugerir presencia. Esta idea preocupó a Hopper durante toda su vida, desde los 20 hasta los últimos años, como es evidente en Habitaciones junto al mar y Sol en una habitación vacía, dos cuadros majestuosos de los años 50 y 60.

      Otra parte esencial de la educación de un artista en ciernes era viajar al extranjero. Al ahorrar dinero de sus asignaciones comerciales, Hopper pudo hacer tres viajes a Europa entre 1906 y 1910. Vivió principalmente en París, y en cartas a casa hablaba con entusiasmo sobre la belleza de la ciudad y la apreciación del arte por parte de sus ciudadanos.

      A pesar de que Hopper disfrutaba de la capital francesa, registró poco de la innovación o fermento que atrajo a otros artistas estadounidenses residentes. En el momento de la primera visita de Hopper a París, los fauvistas y los expresionistas ya habían hecho su debut, y Picasso avanzaba hacia el cubismo. Hopper vio retrospectivas memorables de Courbet, a quien admiraba, y de C & # 233zanne, de quien se quejaba. "Muchos C & # 233zannes son muy delgados", le dijo más tarde al escritor y artista Brian O'Doherty. "No tienen peso". En cualquier caso, los propios cuadros parisinos de Hopper daban indicios del pintor en el que se convertiría. Fue allí donde dejó de lado los estudios de retratos y la paleta oscura de los años de Henri para concentrarse en la arquitectura, representando puentes y edificios que brillan con la suave luz francesa.

      Después de regresar a los Estados Unidos en 1910, Hopper nunca volvió a visitar Europa. Estaba decidido a encontrar su camino como estadounidense, y se puede detectar una transición hacia un estilo más individual en Esquina de Nueva York, pintado en 1913. En ese lienzo, introduce el motivo de los edificios de ladrillo rojo y la fuga rítmica de ventanas abiertas y cerradas que llevaría a un tono sensacional a finales de la década de 1920 con La ciudad, desde el puente de Williamsburg y Temprano en la mañana del domingo. Pero New York Corner es de transición, el clima es brumoso en lugar de soleado, y una multitud se congrega inusualmente frente a una escalinata. Cuando se le preguntó años más tarde qué pensaba de una exposición de 1964 del trabajo del artista Reginald Marsh, el maestro de los espacios vacíos y embarazados respondió: "Él tiene más personas en una imagen que yo en todas mis pinturas".

      In December 1913, Hopper moved from Midtown to Greenwich Village, where he rented a high-ceilinged, top-floor apartment at 3 Washington Square North, a brick town house overlooking the storied square. The combined living and work space was heated by a potbellied stove, the bathroom was in the hall, and Hopper had to climb four flights of stairs to fetch coal for the stove or pick up the paper. But it suited him perfectly.

      Hopper sold one painting in 1913 but didn't make another major sale for a decade. To support himself, he continued to illustrate business and trade journals, assignments he mostly detested. In 1915 he took up printmaking as a way to remain engaged as an artist. His etchings and drypoints found greater acceptance than his paintings and at $10 to $20 each, they occasionally sold. Along with the bridges, buildings, trains and elevated railroads that already were familiar elements in his work, the prints feature a bold development: Hopper began portraying women as part of the passing scene and as the focus of male longing. The etching Night on the El Train is a snapshot of a pair of lovers oblivious to everyone else. En Evening Wind, a curvaceous nude climbs onto a bed on whose other side the artist seems to be sitting as he scratches a lovely chiaroscuro moment into a metal plate. In these etchings, New York is a nexus of romantic possibilities, overflowing with fantasies tantalizingly on the brink of fulfillment.

      Between 1923 and 1928, Hopper often spent time during the summer in Gloucester, Massachusetts, a fishing village and art colony on Cape Ann. There he devoted himself to watercolor, a less cumbersome medium that allowed him to work outdoors, painting humble shacks as well as the grand mansions built by merchants and sea captains. The watercolors marked the beginning of Hopper's real professional recognition. He entered six of them in a show at the Brooklyn Museum in November 1923. The museum bought one, The Mansard Roof, a view of an 1873 house that showcases not only the structure's solidity, but the light, air and breeze playing over the building. A year later, Hopper sent a fresh batch of Gloucester watercolors to New York dealer Frank Rehn, whose Fifth Avenue gallery was devoted to prominent American painters. After Rehn mounted a Hopper watercolor show in October 1924 that was a critical and financial smash, the artist quit all commercial work and lived by his art for the rest of his life.

      Hopper's career as a watercolorist had been jump-started by the encouragement of Josephine Verstille Nivison, an artist whom Hopper had first courted in 1923 in Gloucester. The two wed in July 1924. As both were over 40, with established living habits, adjusting to each other took some effort. Their marriage was close—Josephine moved into her husband's Washington Square quarters and did not have a separate work space for many years—and turbulent, for they were physical and temperamental opposites. Towering over her, he was stiff-necked and slow-moving she was small, snappy and birdlike, quick to act and quicker to speak, which some said was constantly. Accounts of Jo Hopper's chattering are legion, but her vivacity and conversational ease must have charmed her future husband, at least initially, for these were traits he lacked. "Sometimes talking with Eddie is just like dropping a stone in a well," Jo quipped, "except that it doesn't thump when it hits bottom." As time passed, he tended to disregard her she resented him. But Hopper probably could not have tolerated a more conventional wife. "Marriage is difficult," Jo told a friend. "But the thing has to be gone through." To which Hopper retorted, "Living with one woman is like living with two or three tigers." Jo kept her husband's art ledgers, guarded against too many guests, put up with his creative dry spells and put her own life on hold when he roused himself into working. She posed for nearly every female figure in his canvases, both for his convenience and her peace of mind. They formed a bond that only Edward's death, at age 84, in 1967 would break. Jo survived him by just ten months, dying 12 days before her 85th birthday.

      Jo Hopper's availability as a model likely spurred her husband toward some of the more contemporary scenes of women and couples that became prominent in his oils of the mid- and late 1920s and gave several of them a Jazz Age edge. En Automat y Chop Suey, smartly clothed independent women, symbols of the flapper era, animate a heady cosmopolitan milieu. Chop Suey had an especially personal meaning for the Hoppers—the scene and the place derive from a Columbus Circle Chinese restaurant where they often ate during their courtship.

      Hopper ignored much of the city's hurly-burly he avoided its tourist attractions and landmarks, including the skyscraper, in favor of the homely chimney pots rising on the roofs of commonplace houses and industrial lofts. He painted a number of New York's bridges, though not the most famous, the Brooklyn Bridge. He reserved his greatest affection for unexceptional 19th- and early 20th-century structures. Echoing his Gloucester watercolors (and decades ahead of the historic preservation movement), he treasured vernacular buildings, drawing satisfaction from things that stayed as they were.

      By the late 1920s, Hopper was in full command of a powerful urban vision. He had completed several extraordinary paintings that seemed almost carved out of the materials they were depicting, brick by brick and rivet by rivet. Manhattan Bridge Loop (1928) and Early Sunday Morning (1930) match the monumental scale of New York itself, whereas Night Windows (1928) acknowledges in an almost cinematic way the strange nonchalance that results from lives lived in such close proximity: even when you think you are alone, you are observed—and accept the fact. The unsettling nature of Night Windows derives from the position of the viewer—directly across from a half-dressed woman's derrière. The painting suggests that Hopper may have affected movies as much as they affected him. When German director Wim Wenders, a Hopper fan, was asked why the artist appeals to so many filmmakers, he said: "You can always tell where the camera is."

      With the creation of such distinctive paintings, Hopper's reputation soared. Two on the Aisle sold in 1927 for $1,500, and Manhattan Bridge Loop brought $2,500 in 1928. That same year, Frank Rehn took in more than $8,000 for Hopper's oils and watercolors, which yielded the artist about $5,300 (more than $64,000 today). In January 1930, House by the Railroad became the first painting by any artist to enter the permanent collection of New York's newly established Museum of Modern Art. Later that year, the Whitney Museum of American Art bought Early Sunday Morning for $2,000 it would become a cornerstone of that new institution's permanent collection. The august Metropolitan Museum of Art purchased Tables for Ladies for $4,500 in 1931, and in November 1933, the Museum of Modern Art gave Hopper a retrospective exhibition, an honor rarely bestowed on living American artists. He was 51.

      Since 1930, the Hoppers had spent summer vacations in South Truro, Massachusetts, near the tip of Cape Cod. A small town situated between Wellfleet and Provincetown, Truro had kept its local character. In 1933 Jo received an inheritance, which the couple used to build a house there it was completed the next year. The Hoppers would spend nearly every summer and early autumn in Truro for the remainder of their lives.

      By the end of the 1930s, Hopper had changed his working methods. More and more, instead of painting outside, he stayed in his studio and relied on synthesizing remembered images. He pieced together Cape Cod Evening (1939) from sketches and recollected impressions of the Truro vicinity—a nearby grove of locust trees, the doorway of a house miles away, figures done from imagination, dry grass growing outside his studio. In the painting, a man and woman seem separated by their own introspection. Hopper's "equivocal human figures engaged in uncertain relationships mark his paintings as modern" as strongly as his gas pumps and telephone poles, writes art historian Ellen E. Roberts in the current show's catalog.

      The notions of disconnection and inaccessiblity are most fully realized in Nighthawks (1942), Hopper's most famous painting. Like the Mona Lisa o Whistler's Mother o American Gothic, it has taken on a life of its own in popular culture, with its film-noir sensibility sparking scores of parodies. The figures, customers at a late-night eatery, flooded by an eerie greenish light, look like specimens preserved in a jar. Hopper has banished every superfluous detail: the huge plate-glass window is seamless, and there is no visible entrance to the restaurant. Like characters in a crime movie or existential novel, the figures seem trapped in a world that offers no escape.

      As Hopper aged, he found it increasingly difficult to work, and as his output decreased in the late 1940s, some critics labeled him as passé. But younger artists knew better. Richard Diebenkorn, Ed Ruscha, George Segal, Roy Lichtenstein and Eric Fischl appropriated Hopper's world and made it their own. Eight decades after his most evocative canvases were painted, those silent spaces and uneasy encounters still touch us where we are most vulnerable. Edward Hopper, matchless at capturing the play of light, continues to cast a very long shadow.

      Avis Berman is the author of Edward Hopper's New York and the editor of My Love Affair with Modern Art: Behind the Scenes with a Legendary Curator by Katharine Kuh (2006).


      Moonlight Etchings of the Forgotten Artist who Taught Edward Hopper

      Martin Lewis died in obscurity in 1962 a retired art teacher who had found some success in his early career, but was largely forgotten after the Great Depression took away the demand for his craft, leaving Lewis to spend his last three decades teaching other people how to etch. History chose Edward Hopper, but Martin Lewis was his mentor.

      “After I took up my etching, my painting seemed to crystallise,” Hopper is quoted in his biography. It was Martin Lewis, an Australian emigré who had moved to New York in 1909, that helped Edward learn the basics of etching. The two became good friends on the artists circuit where eachothers’ work was presented to the public at various art clubs and small exhibitions.

      Lewis had taken up printmaking by 1915 and was using the etching press to produce prints which became widely admired and collected by the East coast elite. While making a name for themselves in New York City, Hopper asked his friend if he could study alongside him to learn his techniques, making Lewis his mentor for a brief while. As his student, Hopper learned the finer points of etching and both artists used the great American metropolis at night as their muse.

      Years later, when Hopper was preparing for a one-man show in Pittsburgh at the height of his career, he rejected the notion that Lewis’s work had influenced his own or that he had studied “under Lewis” as implied by the exhibit’s biographical essay. “Lewis is an old friend of mine,” he countered. “When I decided to etch, he, who had already done some, was glad to give me some tips, on the purely mechanical processes, grounding the plates, printing etc”. By this time, the two artists were no longer friends however. According to Edward’s wife Josephine, Lewis and his wife Lucille had given the Hoppers up, “quite understandably. It had been too much of a blow to have E.H so successful.”

      Nearly 50 years after his death, Lewis’s print, Shadow Dance (pictured above), sold for $50,400 at an auction in New York, setting a record price for the artist at auction. He had found a renewed, posthumous appreciation in the new millennium, whereas decades earlier, auction houses couldn’t sell off his prints at all and entire lots failed to reach their reserve price.

      Much of his work may yet to be discovered. In 1920s, he was supported and collected by numerous etching societies and museums, but so many works are now held privately, out of public view. We would love to see more, wouldn’t you?

      Prints for sale can be found on The Old Print Shop.


      Edward Hopper - History

      In comparison with the contemporary Dutch American painters, De Kooning and Mondrian, Hopper’s paintings are realistic, and immediately evoke a sense of identification, at least for many of us. Hopper’s work was initially focused on cityscapes, but later he ventured out in the countryside and produced a number of interesting pictures based on small town life.

      Hopper’s best and best-known painting is entitled, “Nighthawks”. The painting shows a few people sitting on counter stools at the counter of a diner style restaurant. It is obviously well after midnight based on the eerily dark and quiet street. The diner is brightly lit and stands apart from the quiet but dark street, from where the artist viewed the people in the diner. Although, to this author, some of his other paintings are also outstanding, the “Nighthawks” painting is viewed as Hopper’s best and best known.

      Edward Hopper was raised in early Dutch Hudson River country. He was born in the small Hudson River town of Nyack, New York. It is reported that his ancestors were of English, Dutch and Welsh backgrounds. Hopper showed an aptitude for art early in his life, and told his parents that he wanted to become an artist, and wanted to attend an art institute. His parents being practical, and probably realistic, urged him to learn illustration, so that he at least would be able to support himself and his family, after he grew up. Following high school, he enrolled at the Corresponding School of Illustrating in New York City. Although it was apparently a correspondence school, Hopper attended the school in person, commuting daily from Nyack to the school in New York City by train.

      After spending one year at the Illustration School, he switched to the New York School of Art, also referred to as the Chase School, because the school was founded by William Merritt Chase [1849-1916], a reasonably well known American artist. While at the school, Hopper worked with Robert Henri [1869-1929], and it was Henri who gave direction to Hopper’s development as an artist. Hopper’s contemporaries at the School were such later luminaries as George Bellows and Rockwell Kent. Hopper remained at the School for several years, supporting himself with teaching, and working as an illustrator. While at the school he also learned much from his teachers and contemporaries. Along the way he even managed to travel to Europe several times to view the artistic developments, then going on in Europe, and notably in Paris. Although he admired what the impressionists were doing, he was not sufficiently impressed to follow their style of painting. He started out as a realist, and remained a realist, as an artist, for the remainder of his life.

      It was not until 1913, when he was 31 years old, that Hopper exhibited at the Armory Show, and sold his first painting. Even after that first success, Hopper’s work did not gain acceptance by the critics and art buyers until 10 years later. In 1923, at age 41, Hopper sold his second painting, a watercolor, painted with a medium that he had switched to then. The title of that work was “The Mansard Roof”. In the following year Hopper exhibited a group of watercolors at a New York City gallery, and every painting he exhibited was sold. A subsequent gallery exhibit, this time a solo exhibit at the Rehn Gallery in New York City, also sold out. This was the time Hopper clearly had arrived as a painter, and as an artist.

      In 1924, with his reputation as a painter solidly established, he settled in Greenwich Village, where he remained for the rest of his life, as a full time and well-established painter. In 1925, he renewed his friendship with a former student from the Art Institute. Her name was Jo Nevison. They got married the same year, in 1925, when Nevison was 40 and Hopper was 42 years old.

      In 1925, Hopper painted what is also considered one of his major pictures, entitled, “The House by the Railroad”. In 1929, Hopper was included in a major exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. The exhibition was named, “Paintings by Nineteen Living Americans”. The following year, in 1930, Hopper’s, “The House by the Railroad” entered the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art. Also in 1930, the Whitney Museum of American Art purchased Hopper’s painting entitled, “Early Sunday Morning”. In 1933, Hopper was given a retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, and it 1950, the Whitney Museum of American Art gave Hopper a more extensive retrospective exhibition.

      Based on the above, Hopper clearly had become one of the major American graphic artists of the twentieth century. His life can best be described by the following quote from Lloyd Goodrich, shown in the paragraph below.

      “No artist has painted a more revealing portrait of twentieth century America. But he was not merely an objective realist. His art was charged with strong personal emotion, with a deep attachment to our familiar everyday world, in all its ugliness, banality, and beauty”.

      Edward Hopper was born in Nyack, New York, on July 22, 1882. He married Jo Nevison in 1925. So far as is known the couple had no children. Hopper passed away in New York City on May 15, 1967, at the age of 84 years. He bequeathed his art remaining in his possession to the Whitney Museum of American Art, in New York City, upon his death.

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      Edward Hopper

      Realist painter who studied with Robert Henri and Kenneth Hayes Miller at the New York School of Art. One of the country’s most honored artists, Hopper was internationally acclaimed in his lifetime and was elected to both the National Institute of Arts and Letters ( 1945 ) and the American Academy of Arts and Letters ( 1955 ). He poetically painted the isolation and detachment of modern life Nighthawks ( 1942 ) is arguably his best-known composition.

      Joan Stahl American Artists in Photographic Portraits from the Peter A. Juley & Son Collection (Washington, D.C. and Mineola, New York: National Museum of American Art and Dover Publications, Inc., 1995 )

      A quintessential American realist, Hopper painted a repertoire of subjects ranging from the lighthouses and Victorian manses of the New England coast to the movie houses, offices, cafeterias, and highways of New York City. Hopper was associated with the Ash Can artists early in his career he studied with Robert Henri at the New York School of Art from 1900 to 1906 and greatly admired John Sloan’s etchings of New York City. In the 1920 s he achieved recognition with his architectural paintings in which light is used dramatically to characterize his subjects. Whether depicting daylight scenes or nocturnal environments, his paintings have an introspective, contemplative aura that is enhanced by his frequent use of solitary figures set against blank walls. Mood was as important to Hopper as subject, as the statement he wrote for the catalogue of his 1933 retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art makes clear: ​ “ My aim in painting has always been the most exact transcription possible of my most intimate impressions of nature.”

      Virginia M. Mecklenburg Modern American Realism: The Sara Roby Foundation Collection (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press for the National Museum of American Art, 1987 )

      Edward Hopper started his career as an illustrator, but soon switched to painting and studied with the artist Robert Henri at the New York School of Art. He made three trips to Paris between 1906 and 1910 , where he stayed with a French family and painted scenes of the city. Back in the United States , he resumed his commercial work, creating engravings and illustrations of everyday American life. These proved such a success that he was encouraged to return to easel painting, and by 1927 he had established himself with an exhibition in New York City . Hopper painted characteristic American subjects, from movie theaters and restaurants to New England lighthouses. His images capture dramatic areas of light and shadow and often evoke a strong sense of isolation and loneliness, even when there is more than one figure portrayed.

      Edward Hopper: The Watercolors

      In the 1920s, inspired perhaps by the particular light and quality of Gloucester, Massachusetts, Edward Hopper began painting watercolors. He has been celebrated since then as one of the most eloquent of America’s realists.

      Crosscurrents: Modern Art from the Sam Rose and Julie Walters Collection

      In eighty-eight striking paintings and sculptures, Crosscurrents captures modernism as it moved from early abstractions by O’Keeffe, to Picasso and Pollock in midcentury, to pop riffs on contemporary culture by Roy Lichtenstein, Wayne Thiebaud, and Tom Wesselmann—all illustrating the com

      Graphic Masters: Highlights from the Smithsonian American Art Museum

      Graphic Masters celebrates the extraordinary variety and accomplishment of American artists’ works on paper.


      About the Author Amanda Hadley

      Amanda graduated from the University of Kansas, where she studied English literature and got a masters degree in library sciences. She enjoys reading, cooking and playing with her nephews. Her best friend is her little dog Brady.

      About Our Authors

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      Edward Hopper - Biography and Legacy

      Edward Hopper was born into a comfortable, middle-class family in Nyack, New York, in 1882. His parents introduced Edward, and his older sister Marion, to the arts early in life they attended the theatre, concerts and other cultural events, and visited museums. His father owned a dry goods store where Hopper sometimes worked as a teen. Hopper described him as "an incipient intellectual. less at home with his books of accounts than with Montaigne's essays." Both his parents were supportive of his artistic inclinations.

      As a boy, Hopper was quiet and reserved. He was over six feet tall by his early teens, had few friends, and spent much of his time alone with his books and art. His home in Nyack stood on a hill overlooking the Hudson River, just north of New York City. At the time Nyack was a vibrant hub of transit and industry. There was an active train station, three shipbuilding companies, a port for steamboats, and the cross-Hudson ferry. Young Edward spent his days by the river, sketchpad in hand, observing and drawing the rigging and building of boats. This early period is documented in numerous drawings of boats and ships as well as several handmade wooden model boats. As a teen he built a full-sized catboat and briefly considered pursuing a career in naval architecture. The seriousness with which the artist approached his artistic ambitions had already revealed itself by age 10 when he began to sign and date his drawings.

      Early Period

      After graduating high school in 1899, Hopper's parents encouraged him to study commercial illustration instead of fine art. Accordingly, he spent a year at the New York School of Illustration in Manhattan before transferring to the more serious New York School of Art to realize his dream. His teachers there included the American Impressionist William Merritt Chase (who founded the school) and Robert Henri, a leading figure of the Ashcan school, whose proponents advocated depicting the grittier side of urban life. Hopper's classmates at the school included George Bellows, Guy Pene du Bois, and Rockwell Kent.

      In 1905, Hopper began working as an illustrator for a New York City advertising agency but never really liked illustrating and longed for the freedom to paint from his imagination. Unfortunately, success was slow in coming and he was forced to earn his living as an illustrator for nearly 20 more years until his painting career took off.

      Hopper travelled to Europe three times between 1906 and 1910, enjoying two extended stays in Paris. The influence of the Impressionists led him to the streets to draw and paint en plein air, or, as Hopper described it, "from the fact." Years later he would call his work from this period, a form of "modified impressionism." He was especially attracted to Édouard Manet and Edgar Degas's unusual compositional arrangements in their depictions of modern urban life. During a visit to Amsterdam, Hopper also admired Rembrandt's Nightwatch, which called "the most wonderful thing of his I have seen, it's past belief in its reality - it almost amounts to deception."

      After returning from his final trip abroad in 1910, Hopper moved permanently to New York City and, in 1913, settled at 3 Washington Square North. This would be his home and studio for the rest of his life. That same year he sold his first painting, Sailing (1911), for $250 at the Armory show in New York. Though he never stopped painting, it would be 11 years before he sold another painting. During that time he continued to earn his living illustrating and, in 1915, he took up printmaking, producing some 70 etchings and dry points over the next decade. Like the paintings for which he would later become renowned, Hopper's etchings embody a sense alienation and melancholy. One of his better known etchings, Night Shadows (1921) features the birds'-eye viewpoint, the dramatic use of light and shadow, and the air of mystery which would serve as inspiration for many film noir movies of the 1940s. Hopper continued to receive great acclaim for his etchings over the years and considered them an essential part of his artistic development. As he wrote, "After I took up etching, my painting seemed to crystallize."

      Mature Period

      In 1923, Hopper visited Gloucester, Massachusetts. There he became reacquainted with Josephine (Jo) Nivison, whom he had met years earlier as an art student of Robert Henri. He worked in watercolor that summer and it was Jo who encouraged him later that year to join her in participating in a show at the Brooklyn Museum. He exhibited six watercolors there, including The Mansard Roof (1923), which the museum purchased for $100.

      In 1924, Hopper married Jo. From that time on she became his primary model and most ardent supporter. In that same year he had a solo exhibition of watercolors at the Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery in New York. The show sold out and the Rehn Gallery continued to represent him for the rest of his life. This success enabled Hopper to finally give up illustrating.

      Over the next several years, Hopper's painting style matured and his signature iconography emerged--from isolated figures in public or private interiors, to sun-soaked architecture, silent streets, and coastal scenes with lighthouses. In 1930, House by the Railroad (1925) became the first painting accessioned to the permanent collection of the newly founded Museum of Modern Art. The early 1930s were, indeed, a period of great success for Hopper, with sales to major museums and in 1933, a retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art.

      Despite his commercial success, Hopper and Jo lived a frugal lifestyle, only allowing themselves the indulgence of attending theatre and films. Hopper particularly loved going to movies. His first documented visit to one was in Paris in 1909. As he explained, "When I don't feel in the mood for painting, I go to the movies for a week or more. I go on a regular movie binge."

      Early in their marriage the Hoppers spent summers painting in New England, mostly Gloucester and coastal Maine. They also travelled across the country and to Mexico, where they painted watercolors side by side. From 1934, they began spending summers at the house and studio Hopper designed for them in South Truro, Cape Cod in Massachusetts.

      Late Period

      Hopper continued to be productive during the war years and remained unperturbed by the potential threats following the attack on Pearl Harbor. It was precisely during this period that he worked on his most well known painting, Nighthawks (1942). Through the 1950s and early 1960s, Hopper continued to see acclaim and success, despite the arrival of Abstract Expressionism, Pop, and Minimalism to the New York art scene. The universal appeal of his subjects continued to find an avid audience.

      Hopper was not a prolific painter. He often found it hard to settle on a subject to paint and then spent a great deal of time working out the details of the composition through numerous studies. By the end of his life he averaged just two oils a year. Hopper died on May 15, 1967 and Jo Hopper died just 10 months later, bequeathing their artistic estate to the Whitney Museum of American Art. Hopper is buried, along with Jo, his sister and his parents, in Nyack's Oak Hill Cemetery.

      The Legacy of Edward Hopper

      Hopper has inspired countless painters, photographers, filmmakers, set designers, dancers, writers, and musicians and the term "Hopperesque" is now widely used to connote images reminiscent of Hopper's moods and subjects. In the visual arts, Hopper's influence has touched artists in a range of media including Mark Rothko, George Segal, Banksy, Ed Ruscha, and Tony Oursler . The painter Eric Fischl remarked, "You can tell how great an artist is by how long it takes you to get through his territory. I'm still in the territory that he opened up." Richard Diebenkorn recalled the importance of Hopper's influence on his work when he was a student stating, "I embraced Hopper completely . It was his use of light and shade and the atmosphere . kind of drenched, saturated with mood, and its kind of austerity . It was the kind of work that just seemed made for me. I looked at it and it was mine." In the exhibition and catalogue, Edward Hopper & Company: Hopper's Influence on Photography (2009), Jeffrey Fraenkel examines how Edward Hopper inspired a whole school of photographers including Robert Adams, Diane Arbus, Harry Callahan, William Eggleston, Walker Evans, Robert Frank, Lee Friedlander, and Stephen Shore. Fraenkel writes, "More than almost any American artist, Hopper has had a pervasive impact on the way we see the world--so pervasive as to be almost invisible."

      Hopper has had no less of an impact on cinema. Generations of filmmakers have drawn inspiration from Hopper's dramatic viewpoints, lighting, and overall moods, among them, Sam Mendes, David Lynch, Robert Siodmak, Orson Welles, Wim Wenders, and Billy Wilder. His painting, House by the Railroad (1925) inspired Alfred Hitchcock's house in Psycho (1960) as well as that in Terrence Malick's Days of Heaven (1978).

      Hopper's open-ended narratives have also appealed to writers and musicians. Tom Waits titled an album Nighthawks at the Diner and Madonna named a concert tour after the painting Girlie Show (1941). Joyce Carol Oates refers directly to Hopper in her poem, Edward Hopper's Nighthawks 1942. Many others have created whole collections of stories or poems using Hopper paintings as starting points. Hopper's Nighthawks has been appropriated and used hundreds of times in all forms of media within popular culture. An image of the painting or a facsimile of it can be found in an episode of the Simpsons, as the backdrop for a Peeps marshmallows ad, or featuring Marilyn Monroe and James Dean (in Gottfried Helnwein's Boulevard of Broken Dreams (1984)), morphed into a Starbucks, a space station, and in a variety of cartoons in The New Yorker.

      The artist and writer Victor Burgin properly summed up Hopper's pervasive impact when he said, "We need not look for Hopper in order to find him. We may encounter him by chance at random places where his world intersects our own. We might ask whether or not this photograph by the American documentary photographer Larry Sultan was taken with Edward Hopper's paintings consciously in mind. But the question is irrelevant. To know Hopper's work is to be predisposed to see the world in his terms, consciously or not."


      Ver el vídeo: Edward Hopper, el pintor del silencio Carlos Rodríguez, 2005 (Julio 2022).


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